Based on Professor A. Ferrara’s course "Introduction to Physical Cosmology", this text evolved in a self-contained, thorough overview of the main concepts and ideas of modern physical cosmology. The Notes are soon to be published by Edizioni della Normale. The front matter is however already available and can be found here.About the authors: - Andrea Ferrara (personal page) - Luca Marchetti (firstname.lastname@example.org) is a cotutelle PhD student (University of Pisa and Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich). He is mainly interested in the extraction of continuum physics from quantum gravity, especially in a cosmological context. - Marta Monelli (email@example.com) is currently a PhD student at Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik (Garching). Her work focuses on CMB physics and simulations for CMB experiments.